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Flatfoot, PTCD, PCFD

The names attributed to this condition, such as Posterior Tibial Tendon Insufficiency (PTTI) or Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity (AAFD), have created misunderstanding for patients. For example, the name PTTI has been used because the posterior tibial tendon, located on the inner side of the hindfoot, is often what is first symptomatic.


A bunion is a common condition that involves an abnormal, bony bump at the base of the big toe, causing the joint to swell outward and become painful. The big toe may also turn inward toward the second toe as a result of the enlarged joint, which can then lead to difficulty walking, ingrown toenails and corns and calluses.

Stiff Big Toe

Hallux rigidus, also known as stiff big toe, is a degenerative condition affecting the joint located at the bottom of the big toe. This condition causes the joint to stiffen and become painful, eventually making it difficult to walk, stand up, and various other tasks. Hallux rigidus may occur as a result of structural abnormalities, injury, underlying conditions, or heredity.

Total Ankle Replacement

Like any other joint in the body, the ankle can be affected by arthritis, a chronic condition that can cause pain, swelling and stiffness and an eventual loss of motion in the affected area. The ankle is the joint that connects the shinbone (tibia) to the upper bone of the foot (talus). Although the ankle is not affected by arthritis as commonly as other joints such as the hand and hip, it is still a serious condition that can cause severe pain for those affected.

Mortons Neuroma

A neuroma is a painful swelling of a nerve, usually in the ball or heel of the foot. Symptoms include sporadic pain; burning, tingling or numbness of one or more toes; and a popping sensation when walking. It may feel as if there is a lump or a marble just beneath the ball of your foot. Pain is often soothed by taking weight off the foot or by massaging the area.

Ruptured Achilles Tendon

The Achilles tendon is the strong band of tissue that connects the calf muscle to the heel and helps you point your foot downward and push off as you walk. If stretched too far, the tendon can tear (rupture), causing severe pain in the ankle and lower leg that can make it difficult or impossible to walk. An Achilles tendon rupture often occurs as a result of repeated stress on the tendon and may be partial or complete, depending on the severity of the injury.

Lesser Toe Deformities

A hammertoe is a term used to describe a crooked, deviated, or contracted toe. Although the condition usually stems from muscle imbalance, it is often aggravated by poor-fitting shoes or socks that cramp the toes. Over a period of years, the tendons that move the toe up and down begin to pull the toe with unequal tension, and the toe then begins to buckle or become contracted, causing an abnormal “v”-shaped bending of the little toes. Patients with this condition often experience pain, swelling, redness and stiffness in the affected toes.

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